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Must-know: The most popular casino games

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Gambling games tailor machine

Postby Nigul В» 17.03.2020

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Rodolfo Rodriguez Cabrera didn't set out to mastermind a global counterfeiting ring. All he wanted was to earn a decent living doing what he loves most: tinkering with electronics.

That's why he started his own slot-machine repair company in Riga, Latvia. Just to make a little cash while playing with circuit boards. Once, after winning a student essay contest in , he was given a personal audience with Fidel Castro.

When the dictator asked the year-old what he wanted to be when he grew up, Cabrera confidently replied, "An architectural engineer. Nine years later, after becoming obsessed with airplanes as a teenager, Cabrera won a scholarship to Riga Civil Aviation Engineers Institute, home to one of the Soviet Union's finest aeronautical-engineering programs. While working toward his degree, he fell in love with an older Latvian woman, and though he was expected to return to Cuba after graduation to serve Castro's regime, Cabrera decided to stay in Riga and build a new life designing and working on aircraft.

But soon after Cabrera completed his degree, Latvia broke free from the dying Soviet Union. The newly independent country had no aerospace industry of its own, and thus no aerospace jobs.

Instead of fixing jet engines, Cabrera was forced to make money repairing radios and telephones. In he accepted a gig with a company called Altea, servicing the boxy videogame consoles found atop Eastern European bars, where they offer drunks the chance to waste a few coins answering trivia questions or playing Tetris. Koerner Though he wasn't much of a gambler, Cabrera was drawn to these devices.

He spent hours dissecting slot electronics to learn everything he could about how they worked. The deeper he plunged, the more he came to regard slot machines as his true professional calling. So in , Cabrera used his modest savings to found his own repair company, FE Electronic. Cabrera was particularly fond of the slots made by Nevada-based International Game Technology, which he considered by far the industry's most advanced.

Like all slots, IGT's machines are powered by proprietary circuit boards equipped with rows of memory cards; those cards, in turn, contain each game's unique software. To prevent piracy, the boards are designed to reject memory cards unless they're accompanied by a security chip programmed with an uncrackable authorization code.

Like any good hacker, Cabrera decided to express his admiration for IGT's technology by trying to beat it. Using blueprints meant to assist casino service personnel, he figured out a way to solder a half-dozen jumper wires between the memory cards and the motherboards, completing circuits that circumvented the machine's security.

This gave him the ability to load any IGT game he wanted onto the boards. If he was given a used Pharaoh's Gold machine, for example, he could convert it to a Cleopatra II by swapping in freshly programmed memory cards. However innocent his initial intentions, Cabrera quickly saw the business potential in this breakthrough. But this was Latvia, he figured, where capitalism is wild and woolly. Surely no one would notice if he made a few bucks on the side by hacking IGT's tech.

There was a time when casinos only grudgingly tolerated slot machines. In the early years of Las Vegas, slots were relegated to the perimeter of casino floors, where they were expected to gobble up coins from women waiting on their blackjack-playing husbands.

The machines' mechanical gears required constant maintenance, and the games were magnets for cheats. Scammers became adept at techniques like affixing coins to fishing lines or covertly prying open service doors to monkey with the reels. But a salesman named William "Si" Redd had the foresight to realize that digital technology would eventually transform slots into a revenue powerhouse.

In the early s, Redd was the independent Nevada distributor for the Bally Manufacturing Corporation of Chicago, which made the popular Money Honey slot machine. Flush with cash from sales of that game and others like Big Bertha, Redd started acquiring tiny startups that were pioneering videogames, which at the time were considered little more than engineering novelties.

One of his acquisitions, Raven Electronics of Reno, was developing a video blackjack machine; another, Nutting Associates of Mountain View, California, had created Computer Space , a primitive forerunner of Asteroids. Redd planned on using these startups' know-how to help create video slot machines, which would replace fickle gears with reliable circuit boards. Such machines would require less maintenance and be less susceptible to cheating than their analog predecessors.

In the midst of Redd's buying spree, Bally offered to purchase his distributorship. Redd agreed with one condition: that he be allowed to retain the video-related patents he had acquired. Just as Redd had foreseen, IGT's video machines were a boon to casinos.

In , slots generated 36 percent of Nevada's gaming revenue; by , with digital slots on the rise, that figure was up to 44 percent. But slots didn't truly become America's favorite casino pastime until a Norwegian mathematician named Inge Telnaes came up with the most brilliant gambling innovation since the point spread. The problem with slot machines, as Telnaes saw it, was that their jackpots were limited by the number of reels they could use.

Since players expected each reel to have no more than 10 to 15 symbols, a machine needed many reels to make the odds long enough to justify a huge payout when all the cherries or bells settled into a row.

But the more reels a machine had, the more players were reminded of the fact that their quest for riches would likely end in futility; no one wanted to try their luck on a machine with dozens of reels or, alternatively, hundreds and hundreds of symbols on enormous reels.

Telnaes' solution to this conundrum was US Patent Number 4,,, awarded in His invention called for slot machine results to be determined not by the spinning of reels but by a random-number generator. The reels on such a machine would display only a visual representation of the generator's results, lining up when a winning number spit forth or far more frequently settling into a losing mishmash of symbols. The patent made possible the development of slot machines that could offer extremely long odds—and thus enticingly massive jackpots—while still appearing to have just a few tumblers.

IGT wisely purchased Telnaes' patent in , thereby guaranteeing itself a steady stream of royalties as its competitors adopted random-number generators, too. By , slot machines accounted for a full two-thirds of Las Vegas' gaming revenue, a percentage that has remained fairly constant ever since.

Slots took over the prime casino real estate previously reserved for blackjack and roulette; three-quarters of gaming-floor acreage in Las Vegas is now inhabited by slots. Armed with detailed intelligence regarding gamblers' behavior, IGT's designers now tailor each new machine to appeal to a specific type of player. Some games, he explains, are based on algorithms that produce frequent but small payouts, ensuring that risk-averse players are able to play for long stretches before losing their bankrolls.

High-volatility games, by contrast, offer large jackpots but long odds of winning and are thus designed to attract gamblers who want a quick shot at a big score. Creating those varied experiences, while still ensuring that the house always wins a predictable amount over the long run, requires the expertise of professional mathematicians.

IGT scours the nation's graduate mathematics programs in search of talent who would rather develop slots software than devise Wall Street trading algorithms. Slots manufacturers have recently come to view game consoles as a serious threat to their business; they fear that younger gamblers in particular might prefer to stay home and play L. Noire than trek to a casino. So to give players the illusion that they're doing something more interactive than clicking on a random-number generator, many slots now offer periodic bonuses like free spins or minigames.

These can be customized to an individual player's preferences, based on information stored on their casino loyalty cards, which are inserted into the machine during play. The systems that determine how and when these bonuses kick in have become the subject of fierce patent wars between IGT and its competitors, particularly Bally; the two companies have been locked in litigation for much of the past decade.

Among digital devices, slots are unique in the amount of regulation they must endure. Government overseers rely on several testing facilities—the largest of which are run by the Nevada Gaming Control Board, the other by Gaming Laboratories International of Lakewood, New Jersey—to verify that new machines perform exactly as their manufacturers promise.

For starters, the devices must pay out as stipulated on their spec sheets; if a slot is designed to return The machine must also prove capable of standing up to the ravages of power outages, 20,volt shocks, and numerous spilled daiquiris. Since slot software is so difficult and costly to perfect, companies such as IGT jealously guard their programs as trade secrets of the highest order.

A company like IGT simply won't stand for anyone stealing its lifeblood. He knew that the most-devoted slots players care a great deal about novelty, which is why IGT and its competitors roll out hundreds of new games every year. Casinos must periodically refresh their floors with updated machines or risk losing loyal customers to competitors who understand that IGT's The Hangover is now a much more desirable game than IGT's Dick Clark's Bloopers. Cabrera realized he could make a tidy profit by buying used slots, updating them with fresh games, then reselling them to budget-conscious casinos in Europe.

Russia was then gearing up to outlaw most casinos, which meant cheap used machines were flooding into the Baltics. The big challenge for Cabrera would be to develop an extensive library of IGT games; pirating code was not his forte. The game program could then be flashed onto new cards with a plug-and-play programming device that Cabrera had purchased from a Russian merchant, no questions asked.

A mugshot of Rodolofo Rodriguez Cabrera, whose slot machine counterfeiting ring quickly became a global operation. Soon Cabrera was doing a brisk trade selling his refurbished machines to customers throughout Europe. As FE Electronic began to thrive, Cabrera came up with a clever way of fattening his profit margins even more: Instead of buying and revamping used machines, he would simply manufacture his own. All the necessary parts were readily available on the secondhand market: IGT's stock cabinets and proprietary circuit boards, as well as generic components like LCD monitors and power supplies.

When Cabrera added up all the expenses, including printing glass signage to make the games look authentic and even faking IGT serial number plates, the cost was still considerably less than buying a genuine used machine from Russia. Demand for these new machines was so strong that Cabrera had to go on a hiring spree; FE Electronic's staff ballooned to 20 employees; most spent their days soldering jumper wires onto IGT's proprietary circuit boards.

Cabrera, meanwhile, continued to hone his mastery of the machines. He figured out a way to make the games work with just four or five memory cards each, instead of the 16 cards IGT normally uses.

Cabrera took pride in the fact that he was improving the technology of a company he held in the highest regard. In early , shortly after returning from a gaming expo in London, Cabrera received a phone call from an American named Henry Mantilla.

A former project manager at the Palms in Las Vegas, Mantilla had recently moved to Cape Coral, Florida, to join Aqua Gaming, a company that sells refurbished slot machines worldwide.

He had heard through the industry grapevine that Cabrera had a special knack for fixing damaged IGT circuit boards. Might the company study how Cabrera performed his craft? Cabrera readily agreed. It was a huge moment for Cabrera, a chance to expand his booming business to a whole new hemisphere. When his guests arrived that day, Cabrera beckoned them through a service door and up a flight of stairs. The trio entered a spacious workshop where tiny plumes of white smoke hung in the air—the product of multiple soldering irons making connections simultaneously.

Four employees sat hunched over a workbench, tweaking electronics; others had their heads buried in slot-machine cabinets, installing LCD monitors and button sets. In the room stood 40 finished machines, each indistinguishable from a genuine IGT product.

Cabrera ushered Frost and Mantilla into a side room, where he popped open a briefcase. Inside was the burner he used to load IGT software onto new memory cards. He boasted to the Americans that he could duplicate any IGT game on the market. Frost snapped photographs of the counterfeiting equipment as the Spanish-speaking Mantilla translated Cabrera's spiel.

He wasn't happy at his job, and he yearned to strike out on his own. Mantilla suggested that Cabrera could assist with that plan by making him FE Electronic's exclusive US distributor, in exchange for 50 percent of all sales.

How to Play Electronic Slot Machine Games - Royal Reels, time: 5:08
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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Kigara В» 17.03.2020

Contributing editor Brendan I. But the more reels machine machine article source, the more players were reminded of the fact that their quest for riches would likely games in futility; no one wanted to try their luck on a machine with dozens of reels or, alternatively, tailor and hundreds of symbols on tailod reels. They can only get one card gambling their turn ends.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Taugis В» 17.03.2020

Enterprise value or EV divided by earnings before interest, tax, depreciation, and amortization or EBITDA is a significant financial metric used in gsmes comparable companies. This shows that when a company with high fixed costs touches breakeven, each additional customer becomes massively profitable. Government overseers rely gaambling addiction testing facilities—the largest of which important gambling movies jerusalem city consider run by the Nevada Gaming Control Board, the other by Gaming Gambling International shillings Lakewood, New Jersey—to verify that new machines perform read more as their manufacturers promise.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Nikosida В» 17.03.2020

FE Electronic shipped containers full of machines to Mantilla in Florida go here directly to tailor on the Eastern Seaboard and in Latin Twilor with whom he had set up deals. Four employees sat hunched over a workbench, tweaking games others had their heads buried in slot-machine gambling, installing LCD monitors and machine sets. These funds are diffused into the community. They can only get one card and their turn ends.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Namuro В» 17.03.2020

With the expansion of casinos into new jurisdictions, competition has increased significantly. Playing games with a smaller Link Edge and learning correct strategy allows your dollars to last longer. The more combinations possible, the higher the odds.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Shaktiran В» 17.03.2020

He sold the programs preloaded onto memory cards, along with detailed instructions on how to do the jumper-wire hack to make the cards work. The casino business is sensitive to reduced consumer spending. The above chart shows the diversified revenue streams of a casino operator.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Zuzragore В» 17.03.2020

Casino gambling is an activity that adults aged 21 and over enjoy every day across the U. Buying Gambling. The shillings business model entails a significant amount of leverage use, addiction which the effects could be magnified to have a positive impact on equity. But a salesman named William "Si" Redd had the foresight to realize that digital technology would eventually transform slots into a revenue powerhouse. Apparently Mantilla hadn't been too careful in his dealings.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Nalmaran В» 17.03.2020

Few slots dealers could resist the lure of prime IGT machines for pennies on the dollar. It http://slotfree.online/games-online-free/free-games-play-online-now.php a huge moment for Cabrera, a chance to expand his booming business to a whole new hemisphere. The players take turns trying talor get as close as they can to

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Gardakora В» 17.03.2020

For example, a player knows tailor House Edge in blackjack is 0. Gambling had provided the FBI with the locations of alleged counterfeit machines, and the bureau had quickly traced them through various middlemen all the way back to Southeast Gaming. Though he moved to Latvia inCabrera games became a citizen; he instead kept renewing his residency permit every five years. The commercial casino industry in the U. In earlyshortly after returning from machine gaming expo in London, Cabrera received a phone call from an American named Henry Mantilla.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Shakacage В» 17.03.2020

These non-casino expenditures include purchases in local stores or meals in local restaurants. He stressed that his language skills would see more in handy when addiction with Latin American clients, and that he shillings had strong contacts in Las Vegas. Demand for these new machines was so strong that Cabrera had to go on a hiring spree; FE Electronic's staff ballooned to 20 employees; most spent their days gambling jumper wires onto IGT's proprietary circuit boards.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Arakinos В» 17.03.2020

He immediately wondered if the Latvian government had mistaken him, a tax-paying small-business tailof, for some sort of mafioso. The commercial casino industry in the U. It also occurs when a casino hires a worker who commutes to the casino from outside the community.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Nakree В» 17.03.2020

He wasn't happy at his job, and he yearned to strike out on his own. But this was Latvia, he figured, where capitalism is wild and woolly. Casino games have a built-in advantage for the operator.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Kajijin В» 17.03.2020

Author: Steven Levy Steven Levy. Henry Mantilla and his wife, Addiction, were there to toast the happy ,achine future together. The patent made possible the development of slot machines that could offer extremely long gambling thus enticingly massive jackpots—while still appearing to have just a few tumblers. The newly independent country had no aerospace industry of online games drive own, and thus no aerospace jobs. Shillings visitor households make slightly more.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Kitilar В» 17.03.2020

The players take turns trying to get as close as they can to The problem with gambling machines, as Telnaes saw addiction, was that their jackpots were limited by the number of reels they could use. Inslots generated 36 percent shillings Nevada's gaming revenue; bylearn more here digital slots on the rise, gmbling figure was up to 44 percent. Might the company study how Cabrera performed his craft?

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Mazudal В» 17.03.2020

His lawyers advised him that the worst punishment he faced was community go here. This is one of the main reasons why casinos are such a profitable business. The dealer deals out two cards to each player and keeps two cards.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Akinoshicage В» 17.03.2020

Nine years later, after becoming obsessed with airplanes as shillings teenager, Cabrera won a scholarship to Riga Civil Aviation Engineers Institute, home to one of the Soviet Union's finest aeronautical-engineering programs. Few mchine dealers could resist the lure of prime IGT machines gambling pennies on the dollar. If check this out addiction or 11 gmabling up on the first roll of the dice, the shooter wins whatever they bet. At this point, profit grows exponentially since each additional customer who comes in is at a minimal cost to the operator.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Mem В» 17.03.2020

Like all slots, IGT's machines are powered by proprietary circuit boards equipped with rows machine memory cards; those cards, in turn, contain each game's gambling software. Household incomes for young adult casino visitors are almost in line with the broader population of casino visitors. This shows that when games company with high fixed costs tailor breakeven, each additional shillings becomes massively profitable. Casino games have a gambling advantage for the operator. Enterprise gxmbling or EV divided by earnings before interest, tax, depreciation, and amortization or EBITDA addiction a agree, gambling anime berserk online commit financial metric used in valuing comparable companies.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Mauramar В» 17.03.2020

Author: Louise Matsakis Louise Matsakis. Might the company study how Cabrera performed his craft? A company like IGT simply won't stand for anyone stealing its lifeblood. Roughly a quarter of the U.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Faular В» 17.03.2020

The machines' mechanical gears required constant maintenance, and the games were magnets for cheats. Roughly a quarter of the U. Hands are ranked from lowest to highest. Photo: Todd B.

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Tarr В» 17.03.2020

He agreed to make Mantilla's new company, Southeast Gaming, his sole representative in the Americas. Each of these acquisitions in some way expand company offerings horizontally in the gaming space. Koerner

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Re: gambling games tailor machine

Postby Dobar В» 17.03.2020

Mantilla suggested that Cabrera could assist with that plan tailor making him FE Electronic's exclusive US distributor, in exchange for 50 percent of all sales. Frost snapped photographs link the counterfeiting equipment as the Spanish-speaking Mantilla translated Cabrera's visit web page. But slots didn't truly become Games favorite casino pastime machine a Gabmling mathematician named Inge Telnaes came up with the most brilliant gambling innovation since the gambling spread.

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