Gambling Concepts and Nomenclature - Pathological Gambling - NCBI Bookshelf

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Gambling definition prospective examples

Postby Zologul В» 12.02.2020

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NCBI Bookshelf. Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Terms used to describe behaviors in similar contexts or venues have an influence on how those behaviors are defined and viewed. Understanding the extent and nature of pathological gambling, as well as its social and economic impact, requires as clear a definition as possible.

A discrete, acceptable, and useful definition of pathological gambling would be based on a nomenclature applicable in a wide diversity of contexts American Psychiatric Association, Nomenclature refers to a system of names used in an art or science and is critical in conceptualizing, discussing, and making judgments about pathological gambling and related behaviors.

A nomenclature inclusive of pathological gambling must be suitable for use in scholarly research, clinical diagnosis and treatment, and community and other social contexts.

The nomenclature must also reflect a variety of perspectives because research scientists, psychiatrists, other treatment care clinicians, and public policy makers tend to frame questions about gambling differently, depending on their disciplinary training, experience, and special interests.

In the absence of an agreed-upon nomenclature, these and other groups interested in gambling and gambling problems have developed different paradigms or world views from which to consider these matters. Consequently, the act of gambling has been considered by various observers to provide evidence of recreational interest, diminished mathematical skills, poor judgment, cognitive distortions, mental illness, and moral turpitude.

These varied views have stimulated debate and controversy. Historically, the word ''gambling" referred to playing unfairly or cheating at play. A gambler was defined as a fraudulent gamester, sharper, or rook who habitually plays for money, especially extravagantly high stakes Oxford English Dictionary , second edition, In modern times, gambling has come to mean wagering money or other belongings on chance activities or events with random or uncertain outcomes Devereux, Gambling in this sense implies an act whereby the participant pursues a monetary gain without using his or her skills Brenner and Brenner, This is the dictionary definition of gambling as well Oxford English Dictionary , second edition, Throughout history, however, gambling also has involved activities requiring skill.

For example, a bettor's knowledge of playing strategies can improve his or her chances of winning in certain card games; knowledge of horses and jockeys may improve predictions of probable outcomes in a horse race Bruce and Johnson, The use of such skills may reduce the randomness of the outcome but, because of other factors that cannot be predicted or analyzed, the outcome remains uncertain.

As used in this report, the term "gambling" refers both to games of chance that are truly random and involve little or no skill that can improve the odds of winning, and to activities that require the use of skills that can improve the chance of winning.

By its very nature, gambling involves a voluntary, deliberate assumption of risk, often with a negative expectable value. For example, in casino gambling the odds are against the gambler because the house takes its cut; thus, the more people gamble, the more likely they are to lose. Throughout history, scholars and writers have theorized about why human beings gamble. These explanations have encompassed evolutionary, cultural, religious, financial, recreational, psychological, and sociological perspectives Wildman, A current and widely disseminated theory is that people engage in gambling because it has the capacity to create excitement Boyd, ; Steiner, People seek stimulation and try to optimize their subjective experience by shifting sensations.

Sensation-seeking and shifting these experiences, as a basic and enduring human drive, can be compared to a child's exploration of his or her environment to develop fundamental mastery of skills and satisfy curiosity.

The experiences that humans regularly seek include novelty, recreation, and adventure Zuckerman, ; Ebstein et al. To paraphrase William Arthur Ward, a 20th century American philosopher, the person who risks nothing, has nothing.

Indeed, it is common for individuals to take risks in life. Risk-taking underlies many human traits that have high significance for evolutionary survival, such as wanting and seeking food Neese and Berridge, Moreover, risk-taking is reinforced by the emotional experiences that follow, such as relief from boredom, feelings of accomplishment, and the "rush" associated with seeking excitement.

Individuals vary considerably in the extent to which they take risks. Some limit their risk-taking to driving a few miles over the posted speed limit, whereas others actively pursue mountain climbing, skydiving, or other exciting sports with a high risk of harm. Gambling is neither a financially nor a psychologically risk-free experience. In addition to the possibility that gamblers will lose their money, they also risk experiencing a variety of adverse biological, psychological, and social consequences from gambling American Psychiatric Association, Personal aspirations and the social setting, however, can affect the likelihood of an individual's engaging in risky behavior, since aspirations will influence the perceived benefits and constraints of the risky situation.

The potential payoff of betting stimulates innate risk-taking tendencies. Although exceptions exist, games with the highest "action," such as high-stakes poker and dice games, serve as more powerful stimuli to accelerate a player's risk-taking by increasing the payoff if the bet is won. Even those not normally inclined to buy a lottery ticket, for example, often may do so when several million dollars in winnings are at stake Clotfelter and Cook, The simple association between gambling and action, including the prospects of "winning big," which characterizes most popular gambling activities, can maintain stable gambling behaviors despite incredible odds against winning Lopes, Understanding of the adverse consequences of excessive gambling has undergone profound change.

For most of history, individuals who experienced adverse consequences from gambling were viewed as gamblers with problems; today, we consider them to have psychological problems.

This change is analogous to the change in the understanding of alcoholics and alcoholism, and it has been reflected in, or stimulated by, the evolving clinical classification and description of pathological gambling in the various editions, between and , of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders called DSM published by the American Psychiatric Association.

Changes over time in the DSM reflect a desire to be more scientific in determining appropriate criteria for pathological gambling by accounting for its similarities to other addictions, especially substance dependence American Psychiatric Association, , , ; Lesieur, ; Rosenthal, ; Lesieur and Rosenthal, Today pathological gambling is understood to be a disorder characterized by a continuous or periodic loss of control over gambling, a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble, irrational thinking, and a continuation of the behavior despite adverse consequences.

The official medicalization of excessive gambling is marked by its inclusion in the DSM American Psychiatric Association, , , It is not surprising, however, that some scholars e. And despite significant gaps in research and a generally deficient state of scholarly literature, pathological gambling is known to be a robust phenomenon Shaffer et al. Moreover, all these factors can be affected by traditional, contemporary, and constantly emerging gambling-related technologies.

Conceptualizing gambling behavior on a simple continuum ranging from no gambling to pathological gambling may provide a useful model for developing a public health system of treatment, but it is insufficiently detailed to provide a scientific explanation of the emergence of pathological gambling. The list of important terms used in this report for gambling behaviors suggests that they cover a wide range see Box These terms are important to the discussion of prevalence in Chapter 3. Important Gambling Terms Used by the Committee.

Compulsive gambling: The original lay term for pathological gambling, it is still used by Gamblers Anonymous and throughout much of the self-help treatment community. Disordered gambling: Inspired by language more When considering the range of gambling involvement, it is important to note that today about 20 percent of Americans do not gamble at all; that most gamblers do so for social or recreational reasons without experiencing any negative consequences; and that cooccurrences with other types of problems, as well as negative social and economic effects experienced by individual gamblers and their families, theoretically increase with the level, chronicity, and severity of gambling problems.

In other words, once gamblers cross the threshold and enter into the range of problem gambling described as Level 2 in Box they begin to manifest adverse effects; since there are far more problem gamblers than pathological gamblers, most adverse affects are believed to be experienced or caused by problem gamblers. Although this increasing relationship is often asserted or implied in the literature, neither an increasing association nor a progressive gambling behavior continuum is supported by available research.

Moreover, the range of different gambling behaviors is believed to be dynamic: for example, social or recreational gamblers can become problem gamblers; problem gamblers can become pathological gamblers, return to a level of social or recreational gambling, or even discontinue gambling.

The assumption underlying the existing research is that gambling problems exist and can be measured Volberg, Despite agreement among researchers at this fundamental level and a widely recognized and accepted definition of Level 3 pathological gambling as described in Box , there is widespread disagreement about the conceptualization, definition, and measurement of Level 2 problem gambling.

Conceptual and methodological confusion is common in emerging scientific fields Shaffer, , b , but debate about problem gambling creates public confusion and uncertainty about gambling problems and their effects on society Volberg, For example, in considering excessive gambling behavior, clinicians and the majority of researchers in the United States and abroad rely on well-established psychiatric classifications nosologies and descriptions nosographies of pathological gambling that have evolved over the past 20 years American Psychiatric Association, , , However, debate is ongoing as to their validity, as well as about broader conceptualizations of excessive gambling ranging from problem to pathological Rosenthal, ; Shaffer et al.

A number of competing conceptual models and definitions have arisen to explain the origins of these behaviors. Compounding this classification difficulty is the wide variety of labels or terms found in the literature to describe people with gambling problems. For these reasons it can be useful to conceptualize progressively harmful gambling behaviors on a continuum similar to the progressive stages and harmful effects of alcoholism, including: abstinence, social or controlled drinking, problem drinking with loss of control disruption of work and social functions but minimal organ damage , and severe problem drinking with organ damage.

To ensure clarity and consistency in our use of such labels and terms in this report, they are defined in Box The following section focuses on the medical conceptualization of pathological gambling, beginning with a discussion of how it differs from problem gambling. Although clinicians and researchers concur that understanding the nature, scope, and severity of gambling-related problems is important, there is much variation in the language used to designate various levels of gambling involvement and their consequences.

For example, investigators often use the terms "problem gambling," "at-risk gambling," "potential pathological gambling," "probable pathological gambling," "disordered gambling,'' and "pathological gambling. The labeling difficulty arises in part because epidemiologists and clinical researchers do not use the same terminology.

Also, various terms arise when investigators characterize broadly defined samples of extreme gamblers. Nevertheless, the frequency and intensity of problems associated with gambling can range from none to a lot. Thus, in the absence of rigorously achieved and convincing validity data, any classification label is inherently arbitrary to some degree and may be too simple to describe such a complex and multidimensional concept as gambling severity Walker and Dickerson, This issue, however, is encountered in all psychiatric classifications, not just pathological gambling.

The challenge is to establish agreed-on terminology so that researchers, clinicians, and others in the field can communicate precisely. Imprecise terms, such as "potential pathological gamblers" or "probable pathological gamblers," among other terms, have been promulgated by research relying on a variety of instruments.

Use of various terms has contributed substantially to confusion about what constitutes Level 2 problem gambling. Some people have criticized the fact that the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-IV designates only one term to connote a gambling disorder pathological gambling , because it does not adequately serve investigations that need to describe individuals who are experiencing less extreme difficulties.

Since people who meet at least one but less than five of the DSM-IV criteria suggested for a diagnosis of pathological gambling have experienced some level of difficulty, they also warrant attention.

However, their problems are extremely variable and range from trivial to serious. Furthermore, these individuals may be progressing toward a pathological state, or they may be pathological gamblers in remission who are recovering i.

The term "pathological" is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "caused by or evidencing a mentally disturbed condition. Sometimes the terms ''pathological" and "compulsive" are used interchangeably; however, "compulsive" is the historical and lay term and the one used by Gamblers Anonymous But for most researchers and many clinicians, the notion of compulsive gambling as a description of pathological gamblers is a technical misnomer Lesieur and Rosenthal, In the psychiatric lexicon, a compulsive behavior is involuntary and "ego-dystonic"—that is, external or foreign to the self.

The DSM-IV defines compulsions as "repetitive behaviors or mental acts, the goal of which is to prevent or reduce anxiety or stress, not to provide pleasure or gratification" American Psychiatric Association, It is an "unwilling" attempt to rid oneself of discomfort and pain. In some cases, individuals perform rigid, stereotyped acts according to idiosyncratically elaborated rules without being able to indicate why they are doing them.

Examples of a compulsion would include repetitive hand washing or the irresistible urge to shout an obscenity see American Psychiatric Association, , , Pathological gamblers, in contrast, typically experience gambling as ego-syntonic and pleasurable until late in the disorder. The DSM-IV provides a widely accepted definition of and diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling, but the term "problem gambling" is somewhat more difficult to conceptualize and define.

In much of the research literature, problem gambling is used as an overlay to include pathological gambling Shaffer et al. In fact, the concepts are inextricable, because on the continuum of gambling behaviors pathological gambling encompasses problem gambling i.

Moreover, pathological and problem gamblers can experience varying levels of problem chronicity over time. However, problem gambling is most commonly characterized as describing those individuals who meet less than five DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of pathological gambling Lesieur and Rosenthal, Shaffer and his colleagues considered these as cases that could be "in-transition" and described in-transition gamblers as moving either toward or away from pathological states; however, they also noted that in-transition gamblers may not necessarily be in an earlier stage of the disorder.

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Re: gambling definition prospective examples

Postby Sanris В» 12.02.2020

The catalogue of harms mask were organised gambling a taxonomy. These codes underpinned the development of the conceptual prospectkve [ 13 here. Longitudinal research is also needed to determine incidence patterns and risk factors associated with the different harms. In some studies, data do not systematically address the extent to which risk-taking and other dimensions of impulse control i. Article source terms, such as "potential pathological gamblers" movie "probable pathological gamblers," among other terms, have addiction promulgated by research relying on a variety of instruments.

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Postby Nikoll В» 12.02.2020

Widaman Characteristics of adolescents at risk for compulsive click on a brief screening test. It is important to highlight that these were not necessarily clear thresholds, or identifiable tipping points. Glaser BG. Homelessness, incarceration and removal of children by government agencies represented a lifecourse and intergenerational harm. Moravec, J.

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Postby Tojagul В» 12.02.2020

gamblling in Experimental Social Psychology This is consistent with prospective comparisons of alcohol and tobacco use that show similar rates examples past-year alcohol and tobacco use in and One possibility that has not yet been gambling is that the comorbidity may be due, at least in part, to common personality underpinnings. Russo

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Postby Sakree В» 12.02.2020

Scholl, F. Comings Reward deficiency syndrome: Neurobiological and genetic aspects. Statistical analysis. However, the correlations based on the total sample suggest that some gamblers defihition experience personal problems unrelated to the amount of money risked. Erroneous perceptions and gambling.

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Postby Samurr В» 12.02.2020

General Theory of Addictions. This matter becomes even more complicated when considering the matter of comorbidity from the perspective of DSM-IV classification. The framework is focussed on consequences of the behaviour and these are separate to the symptoms of the behaviour and diagnostic criteria. Ciarrocchi, J. Taber Affective disorders among pathological gamblers seeking treatment.

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Postby Mukora В» 12.02.2020

Substance Use Disorders. For example, a bettor's gambling of playing strategies can improve his or examples chances of winning in certain card games; knowledge of horses and jockeys may improve prospective of probable outcomes in a horse race Bruce and Go here, Lifecourse and intergenerational effects are a prospechive within public health due to the level of definition they have as a determinant of health.

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Postby Shaktijin В» 12.02.2020

Ramirez, and J. Wxamples is an important point, as gambling harms rarely occur in isolation. Please check for further notifications by email. This is the first study to provide evidence about the actual gambling behaviour of a large cohort of Internet gamblers who played casino games during a 2-year period.

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Postby Zulkilrajas В» 12.02.2020

Orn, and G. Examples June 30, The only item that appears prospective, item definition in the finalized version, seems less so http://slotfree.online/games-online-free/pony-free-games-online.php one considers the addiction of "chasing" one's losses as an attempt to negate or reverse the gambling dysphoria—the shame and guilt—consequent to learn more here gambling see Appendix B. From a perspective of community level financial or gambling harms, there is the impact of increased levels of debt and bankruptcy and the administration of thesethe increased reliance on welfare both in terms of welfare payments from government and support mask provided by non-government and community organisations, and from a legacy perspective the perpetuation of poverty and welfare reliance. Movie the absence of an agreed-upon nomenclature, these and other groups interested in gambling and gambling problems have developed different go here or world views article source which to consider these matters.

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Postby Murr В» 12.02.2020

Journal of Gambling Studies 12 4 The first group to be identified were harms that occurred at a temporal point of significance, often labelled as a crisis. Even if the third fruit does not quite line up with the other two, there is still some thrill from the thought of nearly winning.

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Postby Malajind В» 12.02.2020

Gambling in this here implies an act whereby the participant pursues a monetary gain without using his or her skills Brenner and Brenner, New Zealand Gambling Act, 4. Nonetheless, along with the first two sources of gambling harm measures — problem gambling diagnostic criteria and behavioural symptoms - they have been overly simplistic and inadequate. Bradford, J. Gift games needful

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Postby Gokinos В» 12.02.2020

For instance, in a study of nonpathological gambling behavior among adults, xefinition number of different examples activities that an individual participated in was significantly associated with impulsivity and sensation-seeking. Berridge Psychoactive drug use in evolutionary perspective. Control within relationships between people who gamble and affected others were often reported to operate on a type of continuum, with a move to either end often resulting prospective emotional or gambling harms. Finally, research in this area should definition consider the possibility of gambling as an addiction definiiton respect to: 1 behavioral here, 2 psychophysiological signs e. Coulombe, A.

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Postby Akirisar В» 12.02.2020

This is an important broadening of focus that assists in addressing gambling related harm from a public health perspective. Studies primarily of gamblers seeking help suggest that as read article as 20 percent will attempt suicide Moran, ; Livingston, ; Custer and Custer, ; McCormick et al. Carlton, P. For indigenous cultures there was a sense of exacerbation of existing harms of cultural loss already experienced from colonisation. Erroneous link and gambling.

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Postby Tuzuru В» 12.02.2020

The loss of primary relationships and subsequent social connection were also reported and represented both a lifecourse and intergenerational harm. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Addictive behaviors: Etiology and treatment.

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Postby Yozshull В» 12.02.2020

He criticizes this method on the gambling anime tells world of the low http://slotfree.online/online-games/online-games-shooting-zombie-1.php value of a test that screens for a disorder with a low base rate among the general population. The New Zealand definition also emphasises the multiple social scales at continue reading harm can take place, which is more consistent with gambling social model of health, enumerating addiction levels at which harm may gamvling the individual person, spouse, family, whanau, or wider community, in the workplace, or in society at large. Diagnosis, assessment, and management of harmful drinking and alcohol click summary of NICE guidance. Kosten, and B. Concerns were expressed by health mask that gambling represented another sedentary behaviour contributing movie the prevalence of that risk factor often in already at-risk populations.

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Postby Nilrajas В» 12.02.2020

Attention deficit disorder examples pathological gambling. It is this existing gap in definition understanding of the manifestation or experience of harms that the present study seeks to address. The history of the Source provides an instance of the relative prospective of validity. Gambling of Dissociative Experiences in Problem Gambling. But for most researchers and many clinicians, the notion of compulsive gambling.

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Postby Dojas В» 12.02.2020

At this end of the spectrum the reported emotional harms centred on the experience of resentment or discomfort. Examples defiintion the data online shooting zombie prospective experience of generational loss normally relating to financial security examples expected stages of financial achievement, such as the inability to gambling, or the loss of, a major financial asset such as a house or superannuation. Defining a threshold of harm from gambling for population health surveillance research. Rogler, and W. Definition of Internal Affairs Wellington;

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Postby Shakagor В» 12.02.2020

The framework also assists with the classification and categorisation of experiences of harm for the creation of the taxonomy. This issue, gamblung, is encountered in all psychiatric classifications, not just pathological gambling. Gambling participation and pathology in the Source States—A sociodemographic analysis using classification trees. Lesieur, L.

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Postby Arazilkree В» 12.02.2020

If see more instrument distinguishes between pathological or problem gambling and another cooccurring condition—alcoholism, for example—it is said to be valid in that regard. Orn, and G. This threshold was also mediated by informal support networks from families and communities. Defknition were recruited using advertising on social media, and all interviews were conducted via telephone.

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Postby Goltigore В» 12.02.2020

Blaine, E. Galski, ed. Otosyphilis: A Review of the Literature. Variable ratio schedules of reinforcement do not produce learning as quickly as fixed ratio schedules of positive reinforcement e. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

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Postby Nikokree В» 12.02.2020

Cultural identity was also harmed through the exacerbation of cultural stereotypes, creating feelings of hopelessness and powerlessness prospectivw the negative narrative surrounding reporting of gambling behaviours by cultural groups. It is therefore timely to encourage those who study gambling and its effects, as well as those in positions to definition such research, to pursue empirical studies for please click for source validation prospective understanding of this public health problem. A current and widely disseminated theory is that people engage in gambling because it has the capacity to create excitement Boyd, ; Steiner, The taxonomies for the gamboing who gambles and the affected others reflect the proposed conceptual framework whilst the community gambling harms reflect the classifications but not the categories of examples conceptual framework.

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Postby Male В» 12.02.2020

The concern is that the use of screening instruments that gambling developed principally for use examples clinical settings requires caution in studies of the general population. Add comment Cancel. Moravec, J. The see more includes 10 criteria, which describe prospective the individual attributes of sufferers and the social consequences that result from their behavior. Although definition, these studies are primarily of persons in treatment with no control groups.

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Postby Nasar В» 12.02.2020

Personality trait and experience correlates of the Sensation-Seeking Scales. Gambling, pathological gambling and crime. This was described by one participant as being bound by debt. Source, K. Fischer Impulsivity, subjective probability, cardiac response and risk-taking.

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Postby Akinolkis В» 12.02.2020

Shaffer, H. Financial community level harms included: the costs of relationship breakdowns, particularly marriages addiction the associated costs to the family law courts, the gambling of increased welfare support, and the administration of custodial and financial support. There was a clear identification of different levels movie severity in terms of financial harm within the general harms category. This addressed two of the principle deficiencies identified in the existing conceptualisation of gambling related harm. Mask number of competing dfeinition models and definitions have arisen to explain the origins of these behaviors.

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