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Gambling addiction

Problem gambling in adolescents: what are the psychological, social and financial consequences?

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Gambling addiction schools

Postby Gotaxe В» 25.06.2019

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Metrics details. The paper examines the roles of sociodemographic traits, family quality and risk behaviour in adolescent problem gambling, with focus on the psychological, social and financial consequences from the socio-ecological model approach.

This model emphasizes the most important risk-protective factors in the development and maintenance of problem gambling on an individual level, a relationship level, as well as a community and societal level. The research was done using the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory with a sample of participants, females Results indicate an important relation between adolescent gambling behaviour and very serious psychological, social and financial consequences.

There is a constellation of risk factors that likely place certain individuals at high risk for problem gambling. Peer Review reports. In this article, we present a socio-ecological analysis of significant sociodemographic, family, school and gambling related factors predicting problem gambling among adolescents, as well as the most important empirical conclusions based on survey results with participants, with special focus on the role of psychological, social and financial consequences, as well as risk-protective factors related to sociodemographic traits, family, school and adolescent risk behaviour.

The socio-ecological model includes risk and protective factors on an individual level health and personal traits , a relationship level the closest social circle that contributes to the range of experience ; the community level the settings for interaction ; and the societal level social and cultural norms, as well as diverse social policies [ 1 ].

The gambling panorama has shifted significantly during the past decades, from an initially mild type of entertainment to a hazardous addiction resulting in a number of academic, behavioural, personality, social, interpersonal, financial, criminal or mental health difficulties for children and adolescents experiencing gambling-related problems [ 2 , 3 , 4 ]. Current frameworks conceptualise problem gambling across a risk continuum [ 5 ], as the term describes gambling behaviour that results in adverse consequences for individuals, families and communities [ 6 ].

These consequences can range from impaired mental health, physical health, relationship and family dysfunction, to financial problems, employment difficulties and legal issues [ 7 ].

Despite being illegal for minors, gambling is a common activity among adolescents. On an international level, estimates of past year gambling participation and problem gambling in youth from to were highly variable, with rates of 0.

Researchers have reported evidence that a combination of biological, psychological and social factors contribute to gambling behaviour [ 13 , 14 ].

A recent meta-analyses by Dowling et al. A number of problem gambling cross-sectional studies identified female gender, adaptive coping strategies, emotional intelligence, well-being, self-monitoring, personal competence, resilience, interpersonal skills, social competence, social support and bonding, school connectedness, parental monitoring and family cohesion as protective factors [ 3 , 12 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ].

Integrated models of pathological gambling such as the Pathways model , introduced by Nower and Blaszczynski, suggest that a number of biological, personality, developmental, cognitive and environmental factors can be incorporated into a theoretical framework that helps explain youth gambling behaviour [ 23 ].

Derevensky et al. Problem gambling comorbid with mental health disorders has been associated with increased psychiatric symptoms; substance use problem severity; interpersonal, physical, financial and social difficulties; impulsivity and suicidality [ 31 ].

On the other hand, family life satisfaction cohesion and the quality of school affiliation, as indicators of social bonding, have been identified as protective factors in relation to youth gambling problems [ 13 , 14 , 30 ]. Based on the research aim and problems, the following hypotheses were established: H1 sociodemographic traits have a significant impact on adolescent gambling; H2 family life satisfaction, parental traits and school related factors represent protective factors in gambling aetiology; and H3 problem gambling has significant psychological, social and financial consequences on adolescents.

The aim of the study was to examine the role of sociodemographic traits, family relations and parent characteristics, as well as school related factors in adolescent gambling behaviour with special focus on its psychological, social and financial consequences. Quantitative analyses were conducted using descriptive and inferential procedures. The data was first processed for central tendency values on all measured items. A correlation analysis was implemented as to investigate the relation between sociodemographic traits, family life quality, risk behaviour, problem gambling and its psychological, social and financial consequences.

A hierarchical regression analysis was implemented as to establish the most significant predictors for adolescent problem gambling. A multidimensional questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of this research. The five-degree pen-paper Likert-scale survey consisted of 4 parts in Croatian language.

The CAGI was developed specifically for adolescents [ 34 , 35 ]. It is a paper-and-pen survey with items, aimed at measuring the range and the complexity of gambling behaviour, rather than a dichotomy of either presence or absence of problem gambling, as is found in most existing adolescent and adult instruments [ 32 , 33 ].

The CAGI has 19 items that measure gambling frequency using six-point response options and time spent gambling in a typical week on 19 forms of gambling and two items to measure money and items of value lost gambling [ 33 ]. It measures four gambling-related domains of loss of control, social, psychological and financial consequences, and a fifth, Gambling Problem Severity Scale GPSS. In our study, the social consequences scale i.

In previous research studies, CAGI was found to yield satisfactory estimates of reliability, validity and classification accuracy [ 32 , 33 ]. Studies have shown it is an appropriate instrument for epidemiological studies as well as for clinical and school settings [ 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 ].

A convenience sample was recruited to reflect the characteristics of the adolescent population. A total of 98 The participants had a 4. Participants were introduced to the research goal prior to responding and given instructions on the procedure, as well as basic definitions on gambling behaviour. Individuals were excluded if they were unable to understand and provide informed consent. All participants were informed and guaranteed complete anonymity, in line with the Ethical Code of Research with Children [ 36 ].

A trained research assistant was responsible for the survey implementation. The research assistant was present at all times during the survey procedure and helped with possible explanations and survey guidelines. After completion, the participants were asked to check the survey answers as to guarantee responding to all the questions. The data was processed using SPSS v Out of participants, Our results show that playing cards, dares and challenges or skills represent the most prevalent adolescent gambling activities Table 3 , while 6.

Derevensky and Gilbeau indicate that typical forms of teen gambling include: card playing for money poker , sports wagering, dice and board games with family and friends; betting with peers on games of personal skill e. This is not similar to some studies reporting greater rates of lottery participation by adolescents [ 38 , 39 , 40 ]. On the other hand, our present results are consistent with other studies in Alberta which found that adolescents favoured card games, games of skills, and sports betting as compared to other gambling activities [ 37 , 41 , 42 ].

This prevalence rate is lower than found in most other studies [ 40 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 ]. It is also lower than the Shaffer et al. Our first hypothesis H1 assumed that sociodemographic traits have a significant impact on adolescent gambling. Previous research established a relationship between male gender and gambling or problem gambling [ 42 , 44 , 46 , 48 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 ].

Sheela et al. A study by Di Nicola et al. Similarly, Elton-Marshall, Leatherdale and Turner have shown that online and land-based gambling was significantly more popular among males [ 56 ]. Mutti-Packer et al. However, a recent meta-analysis reported male gender to be among the strongest risk factors for problem gambling [ 12 ], which was confirmed in our present study results.

In their investigation on the role of age, Sheela et al. In a study conducted by Kristiansen and Jensen, the proportions of at-risk gamblers and problem gamblers were significantly higher among older age groups [ 61 ]. Kristiansen and Jensen reported a weak, non-significant relationship between age and the SOGS-RA score, with older respondents reporting more gambling problems [ 61 ].

This is consistent with our findings and could imply that gambling behaviour is related to personal maturation, more agency and social emancipation, but also indicate that preventive actions need to be targeted at specific age groups.

As evidence indicates, wagering something of value on an uncertain event often begins as early as grade school [ 44 ], with age 11 being the average age of onset found in a couple of major studies [ 25 , 47 ]. Still, our results show a worrying age decline as the earliest reported age of gambling initiation was 7, while it was most prevalent at ages 14, 15 and 18, implying a need for an earlier onset and optimization of efficient prevention programs in schools and community activities.

The second hypothesis H2 assumed that family life satisfaction, parental traits and school related factors represent protective factors in gambling aetiology. A large amount of international research has found that problem gamblers tend to be concentrated among those lacking college education, and who have dropped out of high school, while several studies have demonstrated correlations between higher spending on gambling and lower levels of education [ 62 ].

Gambling during adolescence has been linked with psychiatric, social, and substance misuse problems in adulthood [ 63 ]. Both recreational and problem gambling have been associated with adverse social functioning and mental health in adolescence including poor school performance and difficulties with aggression and mood [ 53 , 64 , 65 ]. Foster et al. Our results showed no significant differences in gambling behaviour or its consequences in relation to the school type participants attended, but indicated significantly higher risk behaviour for vocational school students.

These results are in line with similar studies which have shown that vocational school students have significantly higher risk behaviour prevalence than gymnasium students, with no significant school type differences in gambling behaviour [ 53 , 67 ]. Similarly, Foster et al. Even though our study did not investigate parental gambling behaviours, previous research has positively correlated parental gambling and adolescent gambling, with children of problem gamblers tending to gamble earlier than their peers [ 10 , 44 , 52 , 69 , 70 ], implying the need to educate parents on family risk factors for problem gambling.

The third hypothesis H3 assumed gambling had significant psychological, social and financial consequences on adolescents. Our results established a positive correlation between the psychological, financial and social consequences with problem gambling Table 6 , consistent with previous research on emotional problems and gambling, for example a positive relation between time spent gambling and depression [ 52 , 71 ], also found in a study by Williams [ 37 ] and Rossen et al.

Among the high-risk behaviours, adolescents that smoke, consume alcohol and participate in physical fights had significantly higher odds for gambling addiction. Gambling frequency has been found to be highly associated with other forms of antisocial activity, for example, delinquency [ 74 ].

Additionally, Williams [ 37 ] points to a number of studies that reported a positive relationship between risk-taking and gambling, which was confirmed by a meta-analysis by Dowling et al. Our results also established that more intense psychological, social and financial consequences in gambling positively predicted problem gambling. For example, Gupta and Derevensky [ 9 ] reported that excessive gambling in boys caused emotion-focused coping strategies, such as anger, frustration or anxiety during negative events.

Similarly, Williams found a positive relationship between time spent gambling and depression [ 37 ]. All our regression results are in line with Rossen et al. The same study found that students with unhealthy gambling practices were significantly more likely to report co-existing mental health issues e. For example, Williams found that time spent gambling was a significant predictor for higher levels of impulsivity, possessing more positive attitudes towards gambling, having been in trouble with the police, having suffered from depression, possessing less knowledge about gambling and having greater cognitive errors [ 37 ].

While Ste-Marie, Gupta and Derevensky found that gamblers with the highest scores on state and trait anxiety, as well as for social stress, were likely to meet the criteria for probable pathological gambling [ 28 ], a recent meta-analysis on problem gambling revealed that aggression, anxiety symptoms, attention problems, a big early gambling win, dispositional attention, psychological distress including internalising symptoms , religious attendance and suicidal ideation were not significantly associated with subsequent problem gambling, so results are inconclusive [ 12 ].

Even though our results did not show a significant role of family structure in gambling, a study conducted by Allami et al. A recent meta-analysis on gambling established parent supervision and socio-economic status as significantly negatively associated with subsequent problem gambling [ 12 ].

Our regression analysis did not establish family life quality or parent employment as significant predictors, while Jackson et al. They found no significant associations between gambling and family structure, nor between gambling and parental education. The same study also found a positive association between gambling involvement and depressive symptomology, deliberate self-harm and arguments with others; as it did between gambling participation and engagement in substance use and antisocial behaviours.

These behaviours, with the exception of smoking, were significant predictors of greater involvement in gambling [ 76 ]. Interestingly, a study by Williams established a positive attitude toward gambling as the most consistent predictor of gambling behaviour, as well as problem gambling [ 37 ].

Among other established predictors, Williams found that larger amounts of money won while gambling, positive attitudes towards gambling, impulsivity, more gambling-related cognitive errors, greater risk-taking and less knowledge about gambling, were the variables that significantly contributed to the prediction of higher gambling frequency in order of predictability [ 37 ].

Similarly, having won a large sum of money gambling was the best predictor of increased time spent gambling. In addition, spending more time gambling was also associated with higher levels of impulsivity, possessing more positive attitudes towards gambling, having been in trouble with the police, having suffered from depression, possessing less knowledge about gambling and having greater cognitive errors, in descending order of predictability [ 37 ].

Reductions in positive attitudes towards gambling, prior trouble with the police and increased knowledge were the only three variables that significantly predicted decreased gambling frequency [ 37 ].

Surprisingly, even though we did not establish predictive relations between risky behaviour and problem gambling, it has been found to be highly associated with other forms of antisocial activity.

My Gambling Addiction - On The Red Dot - CNA Insider, time: 4:21
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Re: gambling addiction schools

Postby Maujind В» 25.06.2019

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Postby Moogut В» 25.06.2019

Addiction help is recommended, but a variety of self-help and supported options are also available, including the following: Online Schools Gambling Help OnlineGamblers Anonymous or Problem Gambling Australia for further information, tools and support. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, gambling— Our scholls analysis showed that the average at-risk individuals are online play demon games to male adolescents who struggle academically, have lower educated fathers, attend vocational schools and report low family afdiction satisfaction. Int J Soc Welf. For example, Gupta and Derevensky [ 9 ] reported that excessive gambling in boys caused emotion-focused coping strategies, such as anger, frustration or anxiety during negative events.

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Postby Mejar В» 25.06.2019

The prevention of gambling addiction in youth: a conceptual framework. The good news is that there are a wide range addictkon treatment options and resources available to help you manage a gambling addiction. Gambling behaviors differed according to this web page. Prevalence estimates of schools gambling. Our results show that playing cards, dares and challenges or skills represent the most prevalent adolescent gambling activities Table 3gambling 6.

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Postby Kek В» 25.06.2019

Skip to main content Advertisement. Funding No funding was obtained for this study. Problem gambling in adolescents: what are the psychological, social and financial consequences?.

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Postby Brajin В» 25.06.2019

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Postby Tam В» 25.06.2019

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Postby Metaxe В» 25.06.2019

Consent for publication Not applicable. Call the Financial Counselling Hotline on for assistance with financial difficulties. Gambling in young adolescents. Washington: National center for responsible gaming. Availability of data and materials All research data is available upon demand, and was submitted to the Editorial Office in the publication process.

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Postby Kerr В» 25.06.2019

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Postby Nijar В» 25.06.2019

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Download references. Parental modeling, attachment, and supervision as moderators of adolescent gambling. Self-reported drinking and alcohol-related problems among early adolescents: dimensionality and validity over 24 months.

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